As a business owner or manager, you may have to think about what you need concerning the elements of a business plan. Most times, a business plan is designed for convincing someone – usually a lender (bank), in order to finance its planned projects. So most startup businesses need certain funding to either finance the start-up the company or pay for a project, which can be in the upper six figures even today. Office rent will be paid, work material is required and you may need additional personnel.

The capital reserves of an individual are often not enough. However, a business concept you created for your business will serve to substantiate your ideas and that means you will never lose sight of the goal. By writing business plans, it is therefore important to be as factual, concrete and precise as possible and to make formal in-house advertising.

Here are the some excellent resources to guide you when you decide to write a business plan:

HarvardThis is the 0fficial site of Harvard University. It shows you how to properly write a business plan.

UPennUniversity of Pennsylvania’s official website for business plans.

UWexWant to learn how to properly write a business plan… Click here!

LVMCCLas Vegas Metro Chamber of Commerce shows you the right way of writing business plans.

Baker UniversityOfficial Baker University website with all the information you need for writing business plans.

HBS.EduLearn everything you need to know about business plans by clicking on this educational site first.

KY.govKentucky’s official government website that features a page on business plans.

Realtor.orgThis is the only real realtor’s guide to writing the prefect business plan.

NC.govNC’s official government website featuring everything you need to know concerning business plan information.

SBAThis is the Small Business Administration’s official website.

Business Plan’s resource for business plans that comes with related links.

UDayton.EduUniversity of Dayton’s official website loaded with plenty of links on properly writing business plans.

Washington.govWashington state’s official government website featuring business plan info.

Business plansPremier site for all things business plans that comes with related links.

Beginning FarmersSimple website featuring numerous tips for writing business plans.

SBA DenverDenver’s official SBA website which covers business-related ideas like writing business plans.

Business Plan ConsultingWebsite that explains all things concerning business plans.

EPALearning how to write business plans via the EPA.

Resource LinksThis site is filled with links to help you with the preparation and writing of business plans.

Colorado StateThis is Colorado’s official website for all things business. It covers everything from writing business plans to submitting them to financial institutions.

Business Plan ToolkitThis site has free business plan toolkits and links to help you write the perfect business plan.

Columbus LibraryThis is the Columbus’ official library that has plenty of help tips on writing business plans.

FAMEThis is Maine’s official finance authority website.

Gov.UKYou don’t need to live in the UK’s to take advantage of the official website for writing business plans the right way.

Columbia.EduColumbia University’s official website helping people with business plans.

Prospects UKThe UK’s official graduate careers website

SBDCWashington State’s Small Business Network designed to help people write the perfect business plan.

My Own BusinessGet your very own free checklist and start your own business free using this website

Carnegie LibraryCarnegie’s very own resource library gives you a number of ways to improve your business plan

FAU CompetitionHave a sold business concept? Join FAU’s Business Plan competition!

SHRMSociety for Human Resource Management is here to help you with your business plan management.

One of the most important aspects of a successful business is the development of a good customer service department. Often, the only interaction a customer has with a company is through their customer service employees, so it is very important for workers to create an overall positive experience. Going above and beyond for a customer is one of the best things you can do as an employee because experiences that are exceptionally pleasant or unpleasant are much more likely to be remembered. Creating a memorable, friendly interaction is a great way to put yourself and your business in the spotlight. Good customer service skills are one of the most important things a person can learn because they transcend the business world and become a great asset in other areas of life.

A page with articles about how to improve customer service skills by developing effective listening and communication skills.

A resource guide for customer service workers that includes information about how to cope with difficult situations.

This page contains resources for businesses that would be helpful for learning how to improve customer service skills.

A list of links that would be useful for someone beginning to grow their business.

Valuable information about how to improve work conditions and advance opportunities for employees.

These resources will help people improve their communication skills, which is an important part of developing good customer service skills.

This comprehensive guide contains information about careers, including links to sites about networking.

This Massachusetts-based resource was designed to help small businesses grow and succeed.

An article about the importance of developing good listening skills in the customer service profession.

This list of library items from Educause includes a few descriptions of helpful books about customer service and the customer experience.

CSM is an eMagazine for customer service professionals that contains news, articles, job postings, and events related to customer service.

These worksheets would be helpful in teaching ESL employees the importance of good customer service.

General tips and techniques for students that can be applied to any customer service position.

A free e-book download full of information to help employees improve customer service skills.

The Customer Service Group is an invaluable resource for customer service workers and business owners. Sign up for a newsletter, read training guides, and watch skill-building videos.

A resource center with information about customer service seminars and links to articles, books, and relevant research.

This site contains four customer service programs that would be helpful for business owners and their employees.

These webinars will help customer service employees learn how to improve customer relations and engagement.

This reference manual describes many customer service training activities for employees and business owners to develop good customer service skills.

This list of links is broken up into several categories including Assessing Customer Needs, Educating Customers, and Meeting Customer Needs.

An introduction to learning how to effectively communicate with others, including tips on active listening and what to do when your emotions get in the way.

A helpful article from Impact Communications about the importance of developing a clear, friendly telephone voice.

This comprehensive resource guide includes many resources about how to manage conflict and effectively communicate with others.

An introduction to customer service designed for 9-12th grade students. Includes a worksheet and lesson plan.

In the United States, every citizen must pay a state sales tax on the sale or lease of goods and services. A national sales tax does not exist; however, the federal government does levy a sales tax on certain goods and services. Forty-five states impose sales tax on most goods and services, and may delegate local governments to enforce laws governing the payment of these taxes. Tax rates vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and range between one and ten percent. In addition, used items generally require the payment of a sales tax every time it is sold. Many goods and services fall into numerous categories that qualify them as exempt from sales tax or at reduced rates. This may include groceries, prescription drugs, and agricultural-related supplies. These rules vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. States imposing sales tax collect it from the retailer; however, the vendor usually passes sales tax to the customer. Sellers typically collect from in-state purchasers; however, electronic transactions face the possibility of a sales tax imposition from out-of-state buyers in the near future.

Sales Tax State Laws

State sales taxes are only imposed on taxable goods and services. The tax rates and exemptions vary by state and jurisdiction. The sales tax may be imposed on consumers and vendors. All states categorize and separate taxable items from exempt goods and services. Therefore, definitions become critical when dealing with tangible transactions. Most intangible property is not subject to sales tax. Most states exempt bulk sales, such as manufacturing parts. Many states exempt groceries, or food taken off the premises. Others impose state taxes on food eaten on the premises, such as restaurants and fast food eateries. Most states impose state sales tax on leased items, including real estate, commercial, and residential property. In addition, charitable donations are exempt from sales tax. Some states impose a similar tax, often called a use tax, on certain items not subject to sales tax. State laws and rules vary from state to state. Sellers and buyers can contact their local governing bodies on specific laws regarding sales tax by state.


How to Calculate Sales Tax

Sellers and buyers can calculate sales tax on taxable items in just a few easy steps. The first step requires the seller or buyer to find out the sales tax rate in the jurisdiction and state that the transaction takes place. Sellers can use a variety of resources that list sales tax by state. The sales tax rate is generally computed as a percentage; therefore, it is handy to have a calculator on hand. Next, multiply the purchase price of the item or items by the sales tax rate. For instance, if an item costs $29.99 and the sales tax rate is 6.25%, then multiply 29.99 by 6.25 to find out the answer. Add up the prices for multiple items and then multiply the subtotal and the sales tax rate.


Other Resources

Many resources exist to help businesses and consumers to help find out and calculate sales tax. Many websites, magazines, and local government agencies can provide answers to questions on sales tax by state, including tax rates, taxable items, exemptions, and more. Consumers may find out information on how to obtain a certificate for sales tax exemption if they meet the qualifications for it. E-commerce retailers can learn more about recent legislative efforts to regulate Internet-related transactions by contacting their local governing bodies.

Follow these links to learn more about state sales tax:

Gluten Free Diet

Gluten is a protein found in cereal grains including wheat, barley, and rye. A gluten free diet is one that aims to avoid all contact with foods containing gluten to prevent an adverse immune response. Symptoms associated with gluten intolerance include constipation, diarrhea, vomiting, stomach pain, and bloating. Skin problems such as rashes and itching are also an issue for some sufferers. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that is also a type of gluten intolerance. As CD damages the intestines, it can prevent nutrients from being absorbed by the body and lead to malnutrition. To avoid this possibility and stop the uncomfortable health effects, those adopting a gluten free lifestyle have to avoid grains containing gluten. Reading the food label can help dieters identify if a product on a grocery store shelf contains wheat or other grains. Products containing oats may also need to be avoided since oats are often contaminated by wheat. Thankfully, a variety of alternative grains and flours are available that offer unique and tasty alternatives. For instance, flour can be made from almonds, acorns, or flaxseeds and used to make gluten free breads and baked goods. Starches such as corn and potatoes can also be purchased or made at home.

Peanut Allergy Diet

Not a nut but a legume, peanuts and their by-products pop up in tons of commercially available products including the ever popular peanut butter. Despite their popularity, over 3 million Americans suffer from a nut allergy. Nut allergies can cause mild reactions like red and swollen skin along with the possibly deadly anaphylaxis, a full body allergic reaction which often causes wheezing, tongue swelling, and trouble breathing. Peanut allergies generally show up in childhood and usually are not outgrown. Instead, avoiding peanuts is necessary. Foods that may need to be avoided for those with peanut allergies include mixed nuts, nut pastes, salad dressings, cereals, chocolate, and cookies. Looking at the label of an item when shopping will provide more information on whether the product contains peanuts or was made in a factory where peanuts were processed. As peanuts are popular in a variety of ethnic dishes, those with peanut allergies will also have to be diligent when eating out at fast-food restaurants and fine dining establishments. Fast food restaurants, for instance, often contain ice creams and fresh salads sprinkled with nuts. At Chinese restaurants, peanut-centric dishes like Kung Pao Chicken and dishes made with peanut sauces are often on the menu.


Vegetarian Diet

Celebrities such as former president Bill Clinton and academy award winning thespians Forest Whitaker and Natalie Portman show the world that adopting a vegetarian diet can be a healthy lifestyle choice. Studies have also shown that adopting a vegetarian diet can help reverse diabetes, lead to weight loss, and improve cardiovascular health. Although all vegetarian diets eliminate meat, there are different types of vegetarian diets, allowing flexibility in what foods are consumed. Pescetarians, for instance, may sometimes add seafood or fish to their diets. The majority of vegetarians, however, are lacto-ovo vegetarians who give up all meat but still make dairy and eggs a part of their diet. According to the vegetarian food pyramid, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables are the basis of the vegetarian diet. Healthy oils and fats, meat alternatives, low-fat dairy products, beans, nuts, seeds, and eggs should also be added to the vegetarian diet to avoid malnourishment. Getting adequate amounts of vitamin D, however, may not be possible with a vegetarian diet. The vitamin can be gotten through eating fortified tofu and soy products. The body can also produce vitamin D through sun exposure.


Vegan Diet                                                

A Vegan diet is simply a stricter version of the vegetarian diet. Like vegetarians, vegans do not consume meats. Vegans further eliminate all meat by-products including milk, honey, butter, and eggs. Instead, vegans eat a variety of fruits and vegetables. Although the elimination of meat means vegans are not consuming animal protein, they can continue to meet their protein needs through including a variety of nuts, seeds, and grains in their diet. Flaxseeds, soybeans, and the whole grain quinoa are all excellent sources of protein. Vegans will also have to monitor their diets to ensure they are not lacking in iron, zinc, calcium, and B-vitamins, nutrients typically consumed through meat and dairy products. Iron rich vegetables like spinach and legumes with adequate amounts of calcium and zinc can be consumed to ensure vegans maintain adequate levels of these nutrients. Although B-12 is only found naturally in animal protein, vegans can find products fortified with B-12 like soy milk and take B-vitamin supplements if necessary.

Raw Diet

A raw diet is one in which foods are consumed in their natural and unprocessed stage. Raw food consumers are mainly vegetarians who believe that when heat is applied to food it becomes less nutritious. To get the full benefit of eating these items, they choose to consume organic ingredients, avoid processed items, and mainly stick to items which have not been cooked. In fact, strict followers of the diet plan will not heat any food or will not heat it above 115 to 118 degrees Fahrenheit. This is because raw food consumers believe cooking affects the chemical structure of food, changing it in such a way as to destroy beneficial enzymes and lead to the creation of potentially harmful compounds like carcinogens. Raw and dried versions of nuts, fruits, herbs, vegetables, sprouts, nuts, seeds, and seaweeds are part of the raw diet plan. Pressed juices and raw nut milks can be drunk. Foods which have undergone minimal processing like unpasteurized sauces, maple syrup, and vinegar can also be eaten.

Opening a small business can be a daunting yet highly rewarding endeavor. Whether you’ve had a business for many years, or you’re looking to start out for the first time on your own, there are several excellent business resources designed to help people get organized, get the word out about their business, and get it funded. By doing the proper research in advance, you can save a lot of time, money, and headaches while you work on establishing yourself and your company’s reputation. Gather all of your small business resources together in one place, and refer to them often for advice, insight, and organizations designed to help out those opening a small business. By utilizing the proper business resources, you will be able to succeed with more knowledge and information, and be ahead of the game.

Starting a Small Business

  • Business Resource Links – Go here for some further links on subjects like business planning, starting up, franchising, marketing, and much more.

  • Small Business Links – This page has many different helpful links to inform the new business owner and to educate those who are currently running their own small company.

  • 7 Steps to Starting a New Business – Here’s seven helpful steps that will get your business going.

  • Checklist – Use this helpful checklist to make sure you have everything covered when you start up your small business.

  • Mistakes to Avoid – Here are five mistakes to avoid when starting your own business.

How to Fund a Small Business

Other Small Business Resources

  • The Small Business Resource Center – This small business center offers advice and help for those looking to start a small business of their own.

  • SBREFA Small Business Center – This is the US Government’s site for small businesses to help them find resources to learn and understand the various regulations that apply to them.

  • NYC Small Business Resource Center – Here is a helpful website for small business owners looking to start a small business in New York City.

  • Utah Governor’s Office of Economic Development – This website is an example of how one state is working with small businesses to help their local economy grow.

  • SBA Resource Links – Here are several different links that will take you to different pages of the Small Business Administration.

  • IRS Resources for Small Business Owners – This is a very good resource that will help you to discover the many ins and outs of the IRS rules and regulations that are set forth for small businesses.

  • INC – The online magazine dedicated to businesses large and small.

  • Free Small Business Advice – This site offers up advice, mentoring, and much more to help people with small busineses.

With every bite of food that a person takes, he or she runs the risk of illness. Certain types of food carry bacteria that can be harmful if consumed. To destroy these bacteria, it is necessary to cook raw foods so that they reach certain internal cooking temperatures. Primarily it is food that comes from the flesh of animals that is the most likely to be contaminated and cause a food-borne illness. This includes beef, pork, seafood, and poultry.

While food safety begins at the butcher and even prior to that, people must take steps to reduce the risk of contamination by practicing safe food handling. This begins with keeping food properly stored at temperatures below 41 degrees Fahrenheit. This prevents the further growth of bacteria. It is also important to keep food items separated as meats, poultry and fish can easily contaminate non-meat items. Most importantly, a person must prepare his or her food so that it reaches the right temperature. To do that, they will need a thermometer and they will need to know what the correct internal temperature of cooked chicken, seafood, pork, and beef should be.


Beef is available in the form of steaks, roasts, or ground. Regardless of the form, the right beef cooking temperature must be reached to ensure that it is safe for consumption. When cooking ground beef it should reach no less than 160 degrees to effectively kill off dangerous germs. For people cooking steaks or roasts, they should reach a minimum temperature of 145 degrees Fahrenheit. A beef cooking temperature of 145 degrees is considered medium rare. Roasts and steaks that reach 160 degrees Fahrenheit are considered medium. Even after reaching the correct temperature, this type of meat often needs to rest for approximately three minutes. This is not a concern as the temperature will continue to rise during the rest period, preventing bacteria growth.


Poultry often receives a great deal of attention when it comes to cooking. The correct chicken cooking temperature is critical to destroying pathogens such as Salmonella, which is extremely heat-resistant and can cause severe illness. To safely destroy dangerous bacteria the internal temperature of cooked chicken should reach no less than 165 degrees Fahrenheit. This is the minimum temperature for safe cooking, however, for maximum safety a higher chicken cooking temperature may be preferable, particularly for breast meat and whole chickens. For whole chickens 180 degrees is a safe temperature, and 170 degrees Fahrenheit is safest for chicken breasts.


The correct cooking temperatures for pork depends on the type of pork. Whole cuts of fresh pork, such as roasts, chops, or steaks are safe to eat once they have reached an internal temperature of 145 degrees Fahrenheit. They must also rest for approximately three to four minutes, during which the temperature will continue to rise. Ground pork does not need to rest; however, it must reach 160 degrees in order to destroy germs. As with checking the temperature of poultry, always place the thermometer in the thickest portion of the meat.


When cooking seafood, cooking temperatures are only one way to determine whether it is thoroughly cooked. For nearly all seafood, when the internal temperature reaches 145 degrees Fahrenheit harmful bacteria will be destroyed. If you do not have a thermometer handy, check the appearance of the fish to ensure it is cooked. Fish that is at the appropriate temperature will flake easily and its flesh will appear opaque. Cooked lobster or shrimp will not have an opaque appearance. The flesh of this type of seafood will have a pearly look.

Restaurant safety is important for any restaurant owner, manager, employee, and customer. A customer wants to eat at a restaurant where the food is prepared in a safe manner. Less often customers are concerned about the risk of a kitchen fire. For staff and owners however, a kitchen fire could have devastating results in terms of injury and the ability of the business to offer uninterrupted service to customers. To ensure restaurant safety it is important that restaurants take the right steps to guarantee that the kitchen is safe and fire-free. To do that they must learn how to prevent fires from starting in the first place and understand how to put out a grease fire and other forms of kitchen-based fires.

Restaurant Kitchen Safety

Restaurants can be more susceptible to fire and other injury risks than residential kitchens. They are generally busier than home kitchens, and contain numerous electrical cooking equipment that must be properly cared for and maintained. In addition to fire safety, people should be cautious of potential kitchen hazards that are common in busy restaurants such as slips and fall due to spills, and incorrect handling of sharp utensils. Most importantly, all employees who work in the restaurant must behave in a manner that encourages safety.

  • Safety in the Kitchen: This is an article on restaurant and industrial kitchen safety that is provided by Food Services of America. In addition to fire prevention the article covers safety issues such as preventing slips and falls, injury due to moving heavy loads and handling sharp knives, and burns.

  • Restaurant and Kitchen Safety Tips: A PDF chart of hazards found in the restaurant kitchens. The chart lists a number of hazards such as housekeeping, knives, proper lifting techniques, and prevention of grease fires. Alongside each of the hazards is a bulleted list of safety tips.

  • Kitchen/Restaurant Fire Safety – When Fire Strikes!!! A Guide for commercial Kitchen Employees: This is a guide created by the City of Medford Fire and Rescue service. Readers will find the article broken into categories, including prevention, employee attitude, reaction, smoking materials and fire safety, and fire exit drills.

  • Hospitality – Hotel, Restaurant and Kitchen: The Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology lists kitchen safety links and their descriptions.

  • Restaurant Fire Safety: This link will take the reader to a page that lists tips about fire safety in restaurants. There is also a link for a downloadable PDF for a restaurant fire safety fact sheet on this page.

  • Fire Safety – Useful Fire Safety Links: Click on this link for fire safety resources such as government and international resources, organization, and training websites.

  • OSHA Fire Safety: The United Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration fire safety standards are listed on this page.

Kitchen Fire Prevention

To avoid setting one’s kitchen on fire, it is important to behave in an appropriate manner while cooking. People should never play near the stove, particularly when items are cooking on the stove top. When cooking items using grease or oil, the cook should never walk away and leave the stove unattended. What a person wears also plays a part in preventing fires in the kitchen. Long sleeves, for example, can easily catch fire. Flammable items such as paper or cloth towels should also be kept at a distance away from hot burners. Checking that appliances are functioning properly is also a way of preventing kitchen fires from occurring. Appliances and other electrical cooking equipment should be checked to ensure that plugs are in good condition and that cords are not frayed. Keeping a kitchen clean is also helpful. Wiping up spills and cleaning stoves and hoods will help prevent the build-up of flammable oils and other substances.

  • Cooking Safety Tips: The National Fire Protection Association lists helpful kitchen fire prevention tips on this page. In addition to tips on preventing fires, the article also lists tips on what to do if there is a cooking fire and includes a PDF tip sheet that may be downloaded.

  • City of Tallahassee – Kitchen Fire Safety: On this page readers will find fire various prevention tips and tips about what they should do in the event of a fire. Prevention tips involve appliances, what to do when cooking, and general kitchen area fire safety.

  • Fire Prevention – Kitchen Safety: Clicking on this link will take the reader to a page on the City of Evanston website. On this page the reader will find a list of fire safety tips for the kitchen.

  • Kitchen Fire Prevention: This PDF brochure lists what it takes to prevent fires in the kitchen, such as keeping the kitchen clean, and cooking habits. A brief paragraph on how to administer first aid on burns is also a part of the document.

  • Preventing Cooking Fires in the Kitchen: This PDF document explains the common sense steps that can prevent fires, such as not wearing long sleeves near open flames. Kitchen fires statistics are included in this document.

  • Mid State Fire Prevention Links: Click on this link for a list of fire protection associations and agency links.

  • Public Safety – Quick Links: Public safety links are listed on this page in alphabetical order. Under “F” the reader will find a number of fire safety and prevention links.

Extinguishing a Kitchen Fire

In the event of a fire, putting it out correctly is crucial to avoid creating a larger blaze and setting the entire kitchen on fire. It is particularly important to know how to put out a grease fire as some methods can make it worse. In the event of a grease fire the best thing to do is to cover the skillet, pan, or other source of fire with a lid or a cookie sheet to smother the flame. Water and flour should never be used to extinguish this type of fire as it can cause it to spread. Baking soda is another method of putting out grease and also other types of kitchen fires. Dry chemical fire extinguishers are also effective at putting out fires but are messy and unsafe for any food that may be nearby.

  • Fire Safety Fact Sheet – Cooking Safety: This PDF document is in two sections. The first section discusses fire prevention while the second section reviews responding to a cooking fire. The document explains how to put out a stove top fire and how to extinguish a fire in the oven or microwave.

  • The Wrong Move Can Make a Kitchen Fire Worse: CBS Chicago has an article and video that reviews the proper way to put out grease fires in the kitchen. The article also discusses what not to do.

  • Extinguishing Kitchen Fires: Click on this link to learn the correct way to put out grease fires within and outside of a pan, and oven fires.

  • How to Put Out a Kitchen Fire: On this page the reader will find a link to a video on how to put out a grease fire in the kitchen. The article portion of the page explains what happens in the video and why water should not be used on this type of fire.

  • Why Does Baking Soda Extinguish Fires?: Click this link to read an article that explains how baking soda is helpful in putting out many types of kitchen fires.

  • Kitchen Grease Fire: The focus of this article is grease fires. It explains what to do and not do in efforts to put out this type of fire.

  • Public Safety – Fire Safety Links: On this page there is a list of links to websites that educate the public on fires and fire safety.

CDC Keep Your Hands Clean – Handwashing Tips

This is a page on the CDC Vessel Sanitation Program. It is designed for travelers on cruise ships, but these CDC hand washing tips are ideal for anyone. The page outlines step-by-step how to wash hands. This CDC hand washing page also reviews when one should wash his or her hands.

Hand Washing – Five Easy Steps to Prevent Disease

This link leads to a brochure on hand washing from the North Dakota Department of Health. The PDF brochure outlines hand washing in five steps. It also explains why it is important and at what times people should wash their hands.

Hand Washing

This is a PDF from The Colony, Texas. It outlines proper hand washing procedures in the food service industry. Proper hand wash facilities are also reviewed, listing what employers should provide for their employees to ensure that they have the tools needed for good hygiene.

Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer Fact Sheet

This is a PDF document that provides fact about the use of hand sanitizer. The reader will learn how to use alcohol-based hand sanitizers, when they should be used, and when washing when soap and water is best.

Hand Washing Lesson Plan – Kindergarten to Sixth Grade

Clicking on this link will take the reader to a lesson plan in PDF format. The lesson plan is to teach children in kindergarten through sixth grade about proper hand washing. The plan includes pictures that children can color, steps, and areas for children to pledge to wash their hands.

NSF International Scrub Club

This is the home page for the Scrub Club. It is a kid-friendly website where kids can learn the hand washing song, watch videos, play games, and learn about the benefits of proper hand washing.

The Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing – FAQ

On this page readers will learn the answer to questions related to hand washing. Readers will learn about the benefits of hand washing, the critical moments for hand washing, and why rinsing isn’t enough. They will also learn the correct method of washing hands.

How to Hand Wash

A PDF poster that illustrates hand washing techniques. Directions accompany each image. The poster also states how long it should take to effectively clean hands.

Cleaning for Health – Wash Your Hands the Right Way

This is an American Cleaning Institute article that explains the right way to wash hands. The article gives tips, including how to correctly wash hands for the appropriate length of time. Discusses hand wipes and hand sanitizer as alternatives if soap and water are unavailable.

Better Health Channel: Handwashing – Why It’s Important Fact Sheet

This is a PDF fact sheet that explains when and how to wash hands. It also discusses using liquid over bar soap and potential problems associated with using bar soap in public. This fact sheet is in PDF form.

Hand Washing

Good Hygiene in the form of washing one’s hands is reviewed on this page for the Ohio Department of Health. The page includes a musical, video animation on cleaning hands.

Teaching Handwashing

Parents viewing this PDF sheet are given tips on hand washing techniques to teach their children. Suggestions are give such as singing. Links to activities and tools are also given.

Five Steps to Handwashing

St. Mary Medical Center lists the steps necessary to properly clean hands. The steps are according to the CDC hand washing guidelines.

TeensHealth – Hand Washing

A TeensHealth article that covers defensive hand washing and how it is the first line of defense against germs. The article also advises teens on the correct way to wash their hands.

University of Michigan Health System – Hand Hygiene

The importance of hand hygiene is reviewed on this page. It reviews when health care providers should wash their hands and also when patients and visitors to health centers and hospitals should wash their hands. Proper technique and frequently asked questions are also covered.

Hand Sanitizer, Good or Bad?

This is a New York Times article about alcohol-based hand sanitizers. It discusses the popularity of hand sanitizer and reviews when they are beneficial and when hand washing is best. A majority of the article discusses how much alcohol must be present for maximum benefit.

Healthy Schools, Healthy People

Statistics and facts about germs and hand washing are reviewed on this page. Statistics on who’s washing their hands and how it reduces illness can be found on this page

Health and Safety Extra Help

A list of links for elementary, junior high, and high school students. A number of links lead to hand washing articles or websites.

Public Health Resources

A list of hand hygiene and infectious disease links. This list can be found on the Florida Atlantic University Environmental Health and Safety website

The Importance of Hand Washing

This is an article on the McLean County Health Department website that reviews the importance of hand hygiene. The website discusses hand washing techniques as advised by the CDC. The page includes a hand washing video.

Riverdale Local School – Mr. Young, Middle School Health and PE

The web page for middle school health and PE teacher Mr. Young. The side of the page includes a link to “Hand Washing Tips for Kids.”

Consumer Health and Safety

This is a page on the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene website. On this page there is a list of youth camp links. Under the “Boating” category readers will find a link that will take them to hand washing information.

Useful Links

On this web page readers will find a list of useful links for kids. Links will take the reader to information regarding hand sanitizer, hand hygiene and hand washing facts.

Foose School – Hand Washing Links

Clicking on this link will take the reader to a page that lists hand washing links. The links are to the Henry the Hand website and “Why is Handwashing So Important.”

Washoe County, Nevada – Handwashing Resources

Links to information about hand washing are broken down into categories. The categories include tools available, hand washing links, lesson plans, games for kids, and posters.

Hellgate Elementary School

This is the web page for teacher Derek Dungan at Hellgate Elementary. The page has a number of health and PE related links, including a link on hand washing.

On this page kids are taught the basics regarding hand washing. It reminds kids when they should wash their hands.

Springwoods Elementary School – Nurse’s Nook

The nurse’s web page for Springwoods Elementary School that provides tips about flu season and staying healthy. Hand washing is included as one of the tips for flu season. The page also includes a link to several hand washing websites.

Webster City Community Schools – Flu Prevention

Near the bottom of this page readers will find information on hand washing in relation to avoiding the flu. Additional flu prevention tips are given in addition to hand washing.

One of the most convenient developments in shopping has been the creation of the credit card. With the introduction of the use of plastic, shoppers now have the ability to purchase items with needing to carry large amounts of cash. This development has reduced the risk of consumers having their wallets lost or stolen and with it the money in the wallets. Also, credit cards not only allow users convenience, but also give them protection against fraud and illegal usage.

However, using debit and credit cards also means that consumers that use them need to take certain measures to ensure that the cards are used properly. Whether consumers use credit cards where they sign their name or use it as debit card where they use a personal identification number during a point of sale transaction, they need to take precautions on using the card. By following common sense rules of usage, they will reduce the risk of fraud by criminals.

Consumers need to be cautious when dealing with credit and debit cards. Suggestions such as not leaving cards unattended, not having written personal identification numbers handy and when conducting online transactions they should only do them at online sites where you know they are legitimate. And, also importantly never release personal financial information such as account numbers, social security numbers and other information.

Shopping Safety Tips

  • Shopping Safety – Police suggestions on precautions that shoppers should take to be safe while shopping.

  • Safe Shopping – Informative site which deals with issues related to shopping.

  • Shopping Safety – Google article providing tips on how shoppers can be safe online.

  • Holiday Shopping Safety – Tips and information that can be used by shoppers during the holidays.

Online Shopping Tips

  • Shopping Tips – Fox News report providing eleven tips for safe online shopping.

  • Shopping Online – Informative page which gives tips and information on having safe online shopping experiences.

  • Safe Online Shopping – Information and tips on having safe online shopping experiences.

  • Safety Tips – Suggestions on how to keep shoppers safe while online.

  • Online Holiday Safety – Tips and information on safe shopping online during the holiday season.

Credit Card Fraud

  • Credit Card Fraud – Information on how to avoid being a victim of card fraud and scams.

  • Credit Card Fraud Information – Informative resource from Cornell University providing an overview of card fraud.

  • Internet Fraud – FBI resource discussing common Internet fraud that occurs.

  • WSJ Identity Theft – Useful article detailing how credit and debit card fraud can lead to identity theft for consumers.

  • Card Fraud – Helpful resource for consumers on how to avoid being a victim of card fraud.

  • Credit Card Fraud – Information on how fraud can occur using cards and how to prevent being a victim.

Fraud Protection

  • Avoiding Card Fraud – Helpful information for consumers on how they can avoid being a victim of credit and charge card fraud.

  • Prevention Information – Useful page from a major credit reporting agency listing fraud prevention ideas.

  • Protection Tips – Information from Visa listing common tips to protect users from card fraud.

General Shopping Safety Advice

  • Security Tips – Helpful video providing do’s and don’ts on safe online shopping.

  • Safe Shopping – National Crime Prevention Council advice on how to be safe while shopping online and in person.

  • PC World Tips – Information and suggestion on how shoppers can be safe on Cyber Monday and throughout the year.

  • Black Friday Safety – Shopping tips on how consumers can be safe while out on the busiest shopping day of the year.

  • Safe Shopping for the Elderly – Useful page from AARP providing shoppers with helpful advice on how to be safe while shopping.

We hope that this information is helpful in being safe in conducting transactions both online and in person, using credit and debit cards.